About the authors whose lists are tabulated
Rutilius Taurus Aemilianus Palladius, usually called just Palladius, was a Roman writer of the 4th century AD. Palladius is best known for his book on agriculture Opus agriculturae (sometimes known as De Re Rustica). This is a 14-part treatise on farming that gives detailed instructions, month-by-month, for the typical activities of a year on a Roman farm. Most of the book is in prose, with part 14 De Insitione (On Fruit Trees) written in elegiac verse....Palladius's work was well known in the Middle Ages and a number of early English translations have survived from this period, often titled On Husbandry. [Wikipedia]
Charlemagne ('Charles The Great' in English and 'Carolus Magnus' in Latin) became King of the Franks in 786 and in the course of a long life and 53 military campaigns united virtually all the Christian lands of Western Europe...A series of imperial edicts, known as capitularies ('chapters') was issued throught his reign to instruct his subjects on civil, militaray and ecclesiastical affairs. Most famous, to garden historians, was the Capitulare des Villes which specified a list of plants to be grown on the royal estates. The first two plants on the list were the rose and the lily, both ornamental and functional. The other plants were herbs, some also decorative, and vegetables. [http://www.gardenvisit.com/b/charlemagne.htm]
Plan of St. Gall
The Plan of St. Gall is the earliest preserved and most extraordinary visualization of a building complex produced in the Middle Ages. Ever since the Plan was created at the monastery of Reichenau sometime in the period 819-26 A.D., it has been preserved in the Monastic Library of St. Gall (Switzerland)....Drawn and annotated on five pieces of parchment sewn together, the St. Gall Plan is 112 cm x 77.5 cm and includes the ground plans of some forty structures as well as gardens, fences, walls, a road, and an orchard. [http://www.stgallplan.org/index.html]
Walafrid Strabo (or Strabus, "squint-eyed"), German monk and theological writer, was born about 808 in Swabia. [His] works are theological, historical and poetical. Of his theological works the most famous is the great exegetical compilation which, under the name of Glosa ordinaria or the Glosa, remained for some 500 years the most widespread and important quarry of medieval biblical science, and even survived the Reformation, passing into numerous editions as late as the 17th century....His most famous poem is the Hortulus,…is an account of a little garden that he used to tend with his own hands, and is largely made up of descriptions of the various herbs he grows there and their medicinal and other uses. [http://www.nndb.com/people/054/000103742/] Modern edition: Walahfrid Strabo, Hortulus, translated by Raef Payne Hunt, commentary by Wilfrid Blunt. (Pittsburgh: Hunt Botanical Library, 1966). This work includes a facsimile of a 9th century calligraphic manuscript and Latin transcription with English translation on opposite pages.
Aelfric (or Æfric, c. 955-1010/20) is recognized as having been a leading scholar of his time and the foremost Old English prose stylist. He is thought to have beena monk at Winchester, then Cerne Abbas (where he later became abbot), and to have finished his life as the first abbott of Eynsham. Aelfric's most famous works are two series of Catholic Homilies that together make up the longest extant text in Old English. Among other works, Aelfric also produced a Latin grammar (c. 998), some Latin-Old English colloquies, and a Latin-Old English vocabulary -- all intended to assist English-speaking novices in learning Latin. [http://www.carlaz.com/cornish/]
There is...a herbal which was first printed in the fifteenth century, and which is known by the name of `Macer Floridus de viribus herbarum.' Macer Floridus or .AEmilius Macer is supposed to have been the pseudonym of a physician whose real name was Odo. 'De viribus herbarum' deals with seventy-seven plants in alphabetical order, and describes their virtues in mediæval Latin verse, which is believed to date back to the tenth century. It is illustrated with wood-cuts which are apparently copied from those of the Herbarius zu Teutsch. [http://www.oldandsold.com/articles31n/herbals-10.shtml]
Hildegard von Bingen
Acording to Priscilla Throop, "Hildegard was a visionary, mystic, healer, linguist, poet, artist, musician, playwright, biographer, theologian, preacher, and spiritual couselor." She composed her medical works, known today as Physica (Medicine or Book of Medicinal Simples) between 1151 and 1158. The Physica consists of nine books; the first is Plants. [Throop, Priscilla (trans). Hildegard von Bingen's Physica; the complete English translation..., ISBN 0-89281-661-9 (Rochester VT: Healing Arts Press, 1998)]
Neckam was born at St Albans, Hertfordshire, England, on the same night as King Richard I. Neckam's mother nursed the prince with her own son, who thus became Richard's foster-brother. He was educated at the St Albans Abbey school (now St Albans School), and began to teach as schoolmaster of Dunstable....Later he lived for several years at Petit Pons in Paris (c. 1175-1182). By 1180 he had become a distinguished lecturer on the arts at the University of Paris. By 1186 he was back in England....His De naturis rerum, [is] a sort of manual of the scientific knowledge of the 12th century.... [Wikipedia]
John de Garlande
John was an instructor at the University of Paris about 1225. According to Barbara Rubin, "[His Dictionarius] was written to help young students acquire a fluent command of the Latin needed in everyday speech since, by rule, schools required that all conversation be in Latin....[He] takes the reader on a leisurely walk through Paris....He describes the booths of the tradesmen, the hawkers, the merchants, the wares offered....Then he turns...beyond the city to the fields and forests that surrounded it, and at last back to Master John's own home and garden." [Rubin, Barbara Blatt. The dictionarius of John de Garlande, ISBN: 0872911551 9780872911550. (Lawrence KS: Coronado Press, 1981)]
A personal note here: One day in about 1979 my mother, Barbara Rubin (who had taken - just for fun - almost every course offered in the Linguistics Department of her local college) called me to say "I'm taking a class in Medieval Latin and we have to do an original translation. Do you know of anything that I might find interesting and has never been translated?" Oh, yes, I did! And this book was the result of her work.
Bartholomeus Anglicus (Bartholomew of England) was an early 13th century scholastic scholar of Paris, a member of the Franciscan order. He was the author of On the Properties of Things (De proprietatibus rerum), dated at 1240, an early forerunner of the encyclopedia. [Wikipedia] For a facimile of the manuscript, see http://gateway.uvic.ca/spcoll/digit/bart/index.html
Albert, Count of Bollstädt [also known as Albertus Magnus], was born about 1206 at Lauingen in Swabia, studied at Padua and entered the Domincan Order; he died in 1280. In his treatise On Vegatbles and Plants [De vegetabilis et plantis]of about 1260 he added to the sections on utilitarian culture a chapter on pleasure gardens [viridariorum].... [Harvey, John. Medieval Gardens (ISBN 0-917304-69-1). Beaverton, OR: Timber Press, 1981.] For a modern edition, see Magnus, Albert .The boke of Secretes of Albartus Magnus, of the vertues of herbes, stones, and certaine beastes. also a boke of the same author of the maruaylous things of the world and of certaine effectes caused of certayne beastes. London, Wyllyam Copland, 1525. rpt Michael R. Best and Frank H. Brightman ed. Oxford University Press 1974.
English miscellany, 1265. This miscellany is most famous for "Sumer is icumen in" and the Lais of Marie de France. Evidently there is a garden list in there somewhere, but I haven't identified it yet.
Pietro de Crescenzi
"Crescenzi was born of a good family in Bologna, Italy. He studied logic, natural history, medicine and law in the University of Bologna, and became a lawyer and writer. Tired of law practice he decided to write about agricultural matters. His book entitled Ruralia Commoda contained much information relative to domestic plants and animals. The books is considered to be the best medieval treatise on agriculture (about 1306). It was very popular in continental Europe, was translated into several European languages and it exists in a large number of manuscripts. It was likewise printed many times. The book was composed with the purpose of providing the intelligent farmer with a practical account of all aspects of farming. It included material concerning plant growth, extracted from the work of Albertus Magnus as well as the arrangement of farm buildings and water supply."
Henry Daniel et al.
"An outstanding field naturalist, botanist and skilled gardener, Friar Henry Daniel spent seven years training as a physician before becoming a Dominican Friar. He grew 252 plants in his garden at Stepney and wrote many treatises on gardening and in particular herbs native to Britain, including detailed descriptions of soil and climates." [http://www.bbc.co.uk/gardening/design/nonflash_medieval3.shtml]
Le Ménagier de Paris
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Regarding The Feate of Gardening, "The chief interest of Master John's work is that, though turned into doggerel verse, its content is entirely practical and shows no sign of borrowing from authorities. In this it differs markedly from almost everything else of a comparable kind in its field, but in principle belongs to the same empirical and experimental school as the Book of Agriculture of the Moor Ibn Bassal (c. 1080), and the Husbandry of Sir Walter of Henley (c. 1285). We cannot doubt that, whether his name were John or no, a real master gardener of considerable experience stands behind the collected information."[Harvey, John H. "The first English garden book: Mayster Jon Gardener's Treatise and its background", Garden History, Vol 13, No. 2 (Autumn, 1985), pp. 83-101]
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"At a date probably soon after 1525 an alphabetical list of herbs 'necessary for a garden' was compiled for Thomas Fromond, a Surrey landowner who died in 1543. The list is followed by groups of plants classified for specific purposes and by further collections of species destined for a sophisticated pleasure garden. The form of the list follows a new fashion, and the choice of plants indicates fresh developments in gardening, in line with the changed outlook of the Renaissance." [Harvey, John H. "Garden plants of around 1525: The Fromond list", Garden History, Vol 17, No. 2 (Autumn, 1989), pp. 122-134]
French artist Jean Bourdichon (1457-1521) was probably a pupil of the talented Jean Fouquet (ca. 1415/20-1478/81), well acquainted with many innovations of Italian Renaissance painting. From the end of the Middle Ages through the early years of the French Renaissance, Bourdichon was a prolific court painter, manuscript illuminator and designer of hard currency, gold plate and stained-glass windows. [http://arthistory.about.com/od/from_exhibitions/ig/Radiant-Darkness/rd_0707_01.htm]
This is an English miscellany . Among other things it contains pictures of ninety-four plants, including trees, herbs and flowers. Some of these images (about half) are reproduced in Clare Putnam's Flowers and Trees of Tudor England, ISBN 0238789780 (London: Hugh Evelyn, 1972).
Relatively modern edition: Turner, William .Names of Herbs. (London , John Day, 1548; reprint,. London: English Dialect Society, 1881.). Also: interesting, but with no English translation of the facsimile: Turner, William. Libellus de re herbaria novus, originally pub. in 1538; reprinted in facsimile, with notes, modern names, and a life of the author, by Benjamin Daydon Jackson. (London: privately printed, 1877).
In 1568 he published The Seconde parte of William Turner's herball, wherein are contenned the names of herbes in Grece, Latine, Duche, Frenche, and in the apothecaries Latine, and sometime in Italiane, with the virtues of the same herbes with diverse confutationes of no small errours, that men of no small learning have committed in the intreating of herbs of late years.
Pray Enter My Garden